Citation: Egypt Human Rights Concerns, Amnesty International, May 23, 2013
Quotation: “Other issues included legal and other discrimination against members of religious and ethnic minorities; arrests and prosecutions of people for their actual or alleged sexual orientation; and the maltreatment of refugees, asylum-seekers and migrants, including through the use of excessive, including lethal force”.
Summary: This article is about the crisis going on today with the human rights in Egypt. It explains the military involvement, and the reasons why the general public are upset with their government
Credibility: This article is posted on Amnesty International, a geographical organization that analyzes current and past events going on in various countries. It is a secondary source
Usage: This article provides issues in the human rights in Egypt today. With this information, I can compare the rights today to the rights back then, which was found about in another source.
Source 2: Human Rights in the Arab World
Citation: Hamzaway,Chase, Human Rights in the Arab World, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2/1/2008
Quotation: Various quotes from Egyptian people/government
Summary: This book explores the troubles of Egypt past and present. It includes many good quotes from the people, and the government. It covers the violations, changes over time, and the effectiveness of the human rights not only in Egypt, but all around the Middle East.
Credibility: This book is a primary source. It includes many quotes from Egyptian government officials about their government and how the rights of egypt are being violated, which makes it primary. Some words are translated, which may or may not make this on the edge of being secondary however. This book
Usage: This book is effective in the project because it provides direct quotes and information about Egyptians human rights. It also includes information about their government.
Quotation: Multiple facts above, all quoted in the article.
Summary: This short article/presentation explores a background of Old Egypt’s government, the kings and gods, the pyramids, and the positions of power. It gives many accurate facts about Egypt B.C and where all the ancient wonders of Egypt originated.
Credibility: This website (Oracle Library Thinkquest) is a collection of websites/presentations made by student for other students. The presentations are reviewed by experts and all are used for self and other’s gaining of knowledge.
Usage: This small article gives a view of what the culture and beliefs were way back in Ancient Egypt. It provides information for the “culture” portion of the project, but is not directly connected to the thesis.
Source 4: Egyptian Culture Encylopedia
Citation:Egyptian Culture, Ancient History Encyclopedia, Joshua J Mark, 1970
Quotation: Lots of factual information, as well as quotes, translations, and meanings
Summary: This article has an extremely large amount of information in it, from religion, to everyday life, to government, sports, etc. It has quotes from Egyptians, scholars, journalists, and more. It gives readers a complete understanding of what it was like to live in Egypt in ancient (and current) times.
Credibility: This website is an online encyclopedia designed by a history organization. The articles are composed by journalists and historians and are processed to the encyclopedia by other historians.
Usage: This article includes a ton of facts about the original beliefs on Ancient Egypt. For the project, it provides an opportunity to compare and contrast the beliefs then and now, a major part of my project.
Source 5: Egyptian Revolution of 1919
Citation:Egyptian Revolution of 1919, Saylor.org, 2011
Quotation:”Revolt against the British, led to Egyptian independence in 1922”
Summary: This source is a quick background of the 1919 Egyptian Revolution. It gives readers information about the continuous countrywide revolution between the British and Egypt/Sudan. It includes events, causes, effects and the eventual resolution between the two countries
Credibility: This source is secondary, it is a PDF file off of a website called Saylor.com. Saylor.com is a free education course website that covers hundreds of topics from biology to business ethics. There aren’t too many primary sources left from the revolution of 1919, but plenty of evidence.
Usage: This is an extremely valuable source for Egyptian research. It gives knowledge to one of the points in the thesis. Not only that, it also was a very important event for the country of Egypt, where it claimed it’s independence. It is a good source for backing up the thesis.
Source 6 JSTOR Journal: The World Today.
Citation: McDermott, Anthony, The World Today, Oct 1986, pp 170-174
Quotation: “I dread to think of alternatives to democracy…they are frightful and serious and I hope I do not have to resort to them”
Summary: This short JSTOR article shows what Egypt’s state was in before and when President Mubarak was in office. It explains his struggles with control, people’s reaction to him, and most importantly, the fall of the civil state in Egypt, and the beginning of another revolution
Credibility: This source is a primary resource. It includes direct words from President Mubarak himself. Besides the direct words of Mubarak, it also describes events that were caused by the Egyptian peoples’ response to their own slowly corrupting government, as well as the military responses to the people.
Usage: This is another key part of supporting the thesis. It is also very important because these events are still going on right now. The journal was published in 2011, only 2 years ago, which means the after effects are still continuing on in our world today.
Quotation:"I say in all honesty and regardless of the current situation that I did not intend to nominate myself for a new presidential term. I have spent enough years of my life in the service of Egypt and its people”, "I have never, ever been seeking power and the people know the difficult circumstances that I shouldered my responsibility and what I offered this country in war and peace, just as I am a man from the armed forces and it is not in my nature to betray the trust or give up my responsibilities and duties
Summary:The speech Mubarak gives is his resign speech. All of the people in Egypt wanted him gone. He knew nothing about how to run a country in their minds, and just dug Egypt’s hole of government corruption deeper. He was supposed to solve all of their issues when he had released a statement a few years before saying that he promised to bring Egypt to a resolution. Unfortunately for Mubarak, his plan failed which only brought more hatred upon him. In his speech, he explains that Egypt is hopeless, and in reality why he gave up on the hopeless country.
Credibility:This speech is a primary source, word for word all spoken by Mubarak himself to the world. The source comes from a website called Reuters.com. This website is a website that has many business/government speeches from people all around the world.
Usage: President Mubarak’s speech is not only an example of Egypt’s own government losing hope on themselves, but a huge event in the history of Egypt. Presidents don’t resign very often as it is; but to resign because you can’t handle the state of your country is something people don’t exactly see very often. It supports my thesis by the idea of “state of corruption”.
Quotation:“For a century and a half the Arab world has been following a negative policy, Misapplication of western patterns of government brought a confused mixture of philosophies and political systems”. “July 23rd, 1952: A military group was formed and known as “The Free Officers”, led by General Muhammad Neguib.”
Summary: This JSTOR journal is about the second of three Egyptian revolutions. This revolution occurred in 1952 when the British once again went into Egypt. They thought that Egypt was just a place where they could stay for however long they wanted. That got out of hand when they began destroying Egyptian land, as well as developing their own buildings on Egyptian soil. This obviously angered the Egyptian people, and another revolution began. Unlike the 1919 revolution, this revolution involved violence and riots; however, in the end it was the same result. The British were once again driven out of Egypt. This revolution also was the beginning of the Free Officers Movement, a group of Egyptian army nationalists that were said to have instigated the revolution.
Credibility: This journal is a primary source by Gamar Abdel Nasser, a former president of Egypt(1956-1970). The journal gives a first-hand view of the events of the 1952 revolution and the causes of the 1952 revolution. It is very interesting because Nasser wrote this journal in 1955, shortly after the revolution ended and shortly before he was elected into office.
Usage: Information in this article is very important to backing up points in my thesis and gaining further knowledge of Egypt in the 1950’s. It is also a major event in my thesis because it is another one of the three revolutions.
Source 9: Egyptian Culture.
Citation: Kwintessential.co.uk.com, Egypt Language, Culture, Customs, and Etiquette, 2004
Quotation: “During the holy month of Ramadan all Muslims must fast from dawn to dusk and are only permitted to work six hours per day. Fasting includes no eating, drinking, cigarette smoking, or gum chewing” “Social class is very apparent in Egypt since it determines your access to power and position”
Summary: This source explains the location of Egypt, the languages, cultures, and much more about Egypt. It also has the unique traditions of Egyptians, as well as the social class and dress. I
Credibility: This source is secondary. It is merely a ton of background information about the country of Egypt. It comes from kwintessential.co.uk.com, a site with an online encyclopedia-look to it. It is 100% facts about Egypt with no controversy.
Usage: This source does not directly connect to my thesis, but is very important in the process of this project. Without knowing the background of the country, it is much more difficult to make connections between my thesis and my sources. For example: this source tells us that Islam is practiced everywhere and governs their political systems. As learned in other sources, this political system is in chaos, so what does this mean about their culture and how they show their beliefs?
Source 10: Mummification
Citation: Smithsonian Information Institution, Egyptian Mummies, Washington D.C, 2012
Quotation:”After death, the pharaohs of Egypt usually were mummified and buried in elaborate tombs. Members of the nobility and officials also often received the same treatment, and occasionally, common people. However, the process was an expensive one, beyond the means of many.
Summary: The source explains facts about mummification. It tells what mummification is, why they use it, when it started, and who was mummified. Mummification was part of Egypt’s beliefs and customs. Egyptian mummification connects to the pyramids, another source explained, and can be connected back to the
Credibility: This source is secondary. It is mainly facts about mummification, with nothing more than pictures that could be considered primary. The page is an encyclopedia, which gives these images and information approval.
Usage: This source is another example of background information in the project. It does not directly connect to the thesis. This information can connect to the culture portion of the project because not too many countries mummify people…
Source 11: YouTube Video
Title: Egyptian Revolution 2011 COMPLETE. World MUST watch this. Freedom for all!